Welding is basically done in four positions, namely, flat, horizontal, vertical, and overhead welding.
Not having adequate knowledge about these welding positions can be the cause of severe mishaps while welding. Moreover, the welding jobs will not be satisfactory when proper positions are not maintained while welding.
If you are someone with little to no knowledge about basic welding positions, let us enlighten you.
What are welding positions?
As mentioned at the start, welding positions are mainly four types. However, these positions have their individual designation for commercial purposes.
The naming scheme is also useful for welders. We will now discuss the welding positions in detail:
In the case of flat welding, the welding is done from above. It is also known as the down hand welding position. The welder has to weld the two metal plates or pipes by positioning these flatly. Then, the welding electrode is moved in the horizontal direction. In this position, the top part of your workpiece is welded.
This is the easiest and most ergonomic welding position. Hence, many professionals consider this the best welding position.
The vertical welding position is the same as the name suggests. The welding job is done along the vertical plane in this position. Welding in this position may cause some problems when you are not careful enough.
The molten metal may run down the joint in this position. This causes puddling at the bottom part of the joint. However, holding the electrode at an angle will prevent this problem.
For this welding position, the weld is held against a vertical surface and on the top part of a horizontal surface. The axis of this welding position is kept along the horizontal plane.
However, this position has some limitations. The molten may fall towards the lower portion of the joint. Furthermore, the heat tends to rise on the upper side.
So, you will require quite a bit of experience if you have to do welding in the horizontal position.
This is a complicated position to do welding. You will need ample experience and proper safety measures before getting started with overhead welding.
The overhead position is used to weld the underside of joints. The welding electrode must be kept almost parallel to the axis.
However, an inclination of 5 to 10 degrees is suggested. This position causes significant amounts of splatter, making it quite troublesome for welders.
1G,2G,3G,4G-Plate Welding Positions Chart-Easy Understanding
The 1G, 2G,3G, and 4G plate welding is done by joining the grooves of separate metal plates. Depending on their position, they are named in such a way.
Have a look at the table below, it would give you a gist of these positions.
|Type of Plate welding||Position|
What is 1F 2F 3F 4F welding?
The 1F, 2F, 3F, and 4F welding are designations for Fillet weldings in different positions. Let us dive into some more details:
1F Welding: In this welding, one of the metal plates is placed above another one. Then, the electrode is placed above the joint, and welding is done. This is simply fillet welding done in the flat position.
2F Welding: When fillet welding is done in a horizontal position, it is defined as 2F welding.
3F Welding: If the fillet welding is carried out in a vertical position, the welding process is known as 3F welding.
4F Welding: When two metal plates are fused in an overhead position, the welding process is known as 4F welding. Like the processes mentioned above, this is also fillet welding by nature.
What is 1G 2G 3G 4G 5G 6g welding?
1G Welding: This is groove welding by nature. The welding surface is kept flat in this type of welding.
2G Welding: 2G welding is a type of groove welding where the welding surface is kept parallel to the horizontal plane of the groove.
3G Welding: In this type of welding, the welding is done along the vertical plane of the groove.
4G Welding: To put it simply, in this process, welding is done in the overhead position. This is a subcategory of groove welding.
5G Welding: This welding process requires the metal pipes to be fixed at one or both ends. The welding electrode travels in either a vertically up or vertically down position. However, the position of the weld heavily depends on the position of the pipe. If it is not possible to weld in the vertical position, the welding job has to be done in either a flat or overhead position.
6G/6GR Welding: This type of welding process requires the weld joint to be inclined at around 45-degree angle. When there is a restriction ring placed on the 6G weld test coupon, the process is termed as 6GR welding position.
Why is 6G the most difficult welding position?
In the case of the 6G welding position, the pipes are kept at an angle of 45 degrees to each other. The 6G welding position requires extreme precision from the welders.
This precision comes from experience. If the angle of the pipes is slightly mismatched, the welding job becomes faulty and imperfect.
That’s why the 6G welding position is considered to be the most difficult welding position.
Frequently Asked Questions
The highest-paid welding position is the job of rig welding. As very slight mistakes can cause serious failure and damage in these welding jobs, this is quite a demanding and highest-paid welding position.
The easiest welding position is arguably the flat welding position. Here, the welding is done from above. Moreover, there is no chance of puddle formation in this position. As welding in this position is not overly complicated for novice welders, this is considered the easiest position for welding jobs.
The 6G welding position is mostly done in joining pipes. This position requires one pipe to be at an angle of 45 degrees to the other one. Otherwise, this would not be considered a 6G welding position.
In this article, we have tried to cover everything you need to know about basic welding positions.
Now, you have extensive knowledge regarding the positions of basic welding. This should help you in the long run. But, you may still lack confidence in case this is your first welding job. In that case, it would be better to hire a professional welder.
We wish you all the best.